Strategic Environmental Assessment for the New Water Sector Strategy for Lebanon - Final Report




World Bank – GEF Ministry of Environment


Plan Bleu - Ministry of Energy and Water - Ministry of Environment

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Available at OMSAR


Executive summary 1. Introduction 1.1 Background 1.2 SEA Objectives 1.3 Methodology 1.4 Data Sources and Constraints 1.5 Report Structure 2. Determining the Scope of the SEA Study 3. Description of the Proposed Strategic Action 3.1 NWSS Objectives 3.2 NWSS Interventions and Planned Investments 3.3 NWSS Implementation Status 4. Assessment of Baseline Conditions 4.1 Physical Environment 4.1.1 Climate Change 4.1.2 Topography and Landforms 4.1.3 Surface and Groundwater Resources 4.1.4 Water Quality 4.1.5 Karst Features 4.2 Biological and Natural Environment 4.2.1 Riparian Habitats 4.2.2 Bird Species 4.2.3 Protected Areas 4.2.4 Natural Risks 4.3 Social and Socio-Economic Environment 4.3.1 Population 4.3.2 Farmers and Agricultural Activity 4.3.3 Poverty Areas 4.3.4 Industries and Industrial Activity 4.3.5 Household Water Consumption and Expenditure 4.4 Cultural Environment 4.4.1 Roman Aqueducts 4.4.2 Nahr Ibrahim (Adonis River Final SEA Report of National Water Sector Strategy ECODIT • Page ii 4.4.3 Stone mills and other artifacts 4.5 Utilities and Infrastructure 4.5.1 Wastewater Treatment Plants 4.5.2 Storage Dams and Other Man-Made Water Bodies 4.5.3 Hydropower Generation 4.6 Legal, Institutional and Policy Environment 4.6.1 Multilateral Environmental Agreements 4.6.2 Relevant Laws and Regulations 4.6.3 Water Sector Institutional Setup 4.6.4 Urban Planning Trends and Outlook 5. Assessment of Potential Impacts Resulting from the National Water Sector Strategy 5.1 NWSS Effects on Key SEA Issues 5.1.1 Production 5.1.2 Transmission and Distribution 5.1.3 Wastewater 5.2 Macro-Economic Analysis 5.2.1 Absorptive Capacity 5.2.2 Land Expropriations 5.2.3 The Value of Selected NWSS Benefits 5.3 Climate Change Adaptation 5.4 Effects on Ecology and Ecosystems 5.4.1 Undiscovered Species and Water Dependent Species 5.4.2 Potential Encroachment on Protected Sites 5.4.3 Potential Inundation of Forests 5.5 Marine Environment and Coastal Waters 5.6 Effects on Underground Water and Karst 5.7 Water-Energy Nexus 5.7.1 Energy Consumption 5.7.2 Lebanon’s Potential Hydro-Power Production Capacity 5.7.3 Case Study – The Litani River Basin 5.8 Man-Made Water Bodies and Buffers 5.8.1 Buffer Zones 5.8.2 Buffer Zones: Assessment of Lebanon Experience 5.9 Catastrophic Failure and Emergency Planning Final SEA Report of National Water Sector Strategy ECODIT • Page iii 5.9.1 Planning and Approval 5.9.2 Dam Classification and Safety 5.9.3 Dam Safety: Assessment of Lebanon Experience 5.10 Water-Poverty Nexus 5.11 Treated Sewage Effluent and Sludge Reuse 5.11.1 Treated Sewage Effluent Impact on Dams and Lakes 5.11.2 Treated Sewage Effluent Reuse 5.11.3 Sludge Disposal 5.12 Construction and Excavation Waste 5.13 Operation and Maintenance Performance 5.13.1 NWSS Institutional Remedies 5.13.2 Recommendations 5.14 Transboundary Waters 6. Analysis of Alternatives to the Proposed Strategic Action 6.1 Analysis of the No-Action Alternative 6.2 Other Options and Complementary measures for Achieving Strategic Goals 6.2.1 Blue Gold 6.2.2 Water Reform 6.2.3 Private Sector Participation 6.2.4 Resource Augmentation 6.3 Priority Actions and Emergency Solutions for Deficit Reductions 7. Selection of the «Most Suitable Strategic Option » 8. A Framework to Optimise the Environmental and Social Effects of the Strategy 8.1 Policy Responses 8.2 Adaptation Strategies 8.3 Monitoring Recommendations 8.3.1 NWSS Implementation 8.3.2 Water Quality 8.3.3 Ecological Effects of Dams 8.4 Strengthening the EIA / EMP System 8.5 Water Demand Management 9. Recommendations for Integrating SEA Findings in the NWSS 10. List of Cited References 11. Technichal Annexes Annex 11.1 Glossary of Terms Final SEA Report of National Water Sector Strategy ECODIT • Page iv Annex 11.2 Water Body Dependent Bird Species Annex 11.3 Methodology and Calculations used to Value Selected NWSS Benefits Annex 11.4 IFIs Policies on Expropriation and Involuntary Resettlement Annex 11.5 Public-Private-Partnership Options Annex 11.6 Technologically and Economically Proven Desalination Technologies Annex 11.7 Maps 12. Administrative Annexes Annex 12.1 SEA Team Composition Annex 12.2 Consultations & Interviews Annex 12.3 Site Visits Final SEA Report of National Water Sector Strategy ECODIT • Page v List of Tables Table 1. SEA Key Issues and Rationale Table 2. NWSS Key “Infrastructure” Components and Projected Cost Estimates Table 3. NWSS Key “Management” Components and Projected Cost Estimate Table 4. Status of Planned NWSS Storage Dams (updated April 2014) Table 5. Status of NWSS Irrigation Schemes (updated April 2014) Table 6. Status of NWSS Wastewater Works (updated April 2014 and listed from north to south Table 7. Annual available resources (Million cubic metres Mm3) Table 8. Water Quality of 53 springs on the Lebanon Mountain Trail (elev. 700-1800m) Table 9. Coastal Water Quality on Five Beaches Table 10. Threatened Birds Species Observed in Lebanon Table 11. Lebanon’s 16 Nature Reserves Table 12. Areas prone to natural disasters Table 13. Lebanese Population Data (1997 and 2004 Table 14: Resident population, activity rate and share of actives in the agricultural sector Table 15: Number of farmers, agriculture areas and irrigated areas by Caza Table 16. Lower and upper poverty headcounts in 2004 Table 17. Hydropower Electricity Current Installed Capacity in Lebanon Table 18. Potential linkages between the MEAs and planned NWSS investments Table 19. Relevant Selection of Existing and/or Planned Laws and Regulations Table 20. Key players and responsibilities in the water and wastewater sectors Table 21. Yearly capital expenditure by agency Table 22. Targeted Selection of Existing and/or Planned Institutional Measures in Lebanon Table 23. Total value of CDR (capital investment) contracts awarded from 31/12/1992 till 31/12/2012 Table 24. Total Water Investment by the Public and Private Sectors (as % of GDP) Table 25. Benchmarking the NWSS with other investment programs Table 26. Range of Estimated Future Values ($US Million) of Selected NWSS Benefits Table 27. Intersections between Proposed Dams/Hill Lakes and Protected Areas Table 28. Forest Nurseries Run by Ministry of Agriculture Table 29. Marginal BOD5 Reduction by 2030 based on Different Options Table 30. Lebanese Rivers Impacted by Proposed Dams Table 31. Assessment of hydro-electric power production in Litani River Basin Table 32. NWSS planned storage infrastructure Table 33. Draft TSE reuse guidelines for Lebanon Table 34. Estimated sludge production (estimates for 2001 and 2010) Table 35. Sludge use based on sludge classification Table 36. Staffing Level in Water and Wastewater Establishments Table 37. NWSS Components and Alternatives Table 38. Typology of climate change adaptation strategies in the water sector Table 39. EIA and IEE Requirements for NWSS Initiatives based on Decree 8633/2012 Table 40. Examples of Water Demand Side Management Measures Table 41. Policy Framework for Optimizing the Environmental and Social Effects of the NWSS Final SEA Report of National Water Sector Strategy ECODIT • Page vi List of Figures Figure 1. The SEA Process in Relation to the Project Cycle Figure 2. Five geo-morphological regions of Lebanon Figure 3. Precipitation in Beirut and the Occurrence of Consecutive Dry Years (1876 – 2014 Figure 4. Schematic East-West Cross Section of Lebanon Figure 5. Sources of Water at the Household Level Figure 6. Current Institutional Setting and Commercial Relations in the Lebanon Water Sector Figure 7. Household water expenditure by supply source (as % of total household expenditure) Figure 8. Major Areas of Concern & Key SEA Issues by NWSS Component Figure 9. Land Expropriation Process in Lebanon Figure 10. Energy Flows in the Water Life Cycle, the Case for Lebanon Figure 11. Selective Emissions Related to the Energy Flows in the Water Life Cycle Figure 12. Photos of Brissa Dam in Dannieh and Residual Impacts on Landscapes Figure 13. Impact of uncertainty on the effectiveness of management and adaptation measures Figure 14. Supply & Demand Planning in Lebanon for a Moderate Dry Year (2011 – 2035) Figure 15. EIA decision flowchart in relation to the NWSS and the EIA Issuance Data Figure 16. Systematic approach to behavior change in the water sector List of Boxes Box 1. Combating Pollution of the Litani River and Qaraoun Lake Box 2. Lebanon’s Water Bottling Box 3. Dams in Brief Box 4 Boqaata Dam forest seedlings Box 5. Lessons learned from Chabrouh Dam Box 6. Chabrouh Dam Energy Payback Box 7 Case Study: Janneh Dam and Lake Project Box 8 A review of the causes of dam failure Box 9 Case Study - The Impact of Irrigation on Lebanon’s Tobacco Industry Box 10 Water Utility Staffing Levels Box 11. Baalbeck Water and Wastewater Project Box 12. Impact of Syrian Crisis on the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Box 13 Exploring the viability of capturing submarine freshwater springs





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